The Métis are not included in the term “Indians” in the NRTA under paragraph 12. To harvest for food pursuant to s 35 (1) of the Constitution Act, 1982, there must be an ancestral connection to an historic Métis community in the areas that the defendants were charged for harvesting, before Europeans established effective control.
Three Métis defendants, Mr. Boyer, charged with unlawfully fishing, and Mr. Myette and Mr. Poitras, charged with unlawfully hunting for food, invoked their Aboriginal rights to harvest for food pursuant to s 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982. They acknowledge that each of their offences is proven and have been tried together given the similarity of the issues. Fishing and hunting are undisputed practices integral to Métis life. Each of them claim to have Métis harvesting rights in their respective area and that they have harvesting rights as “Indians” under paragraph 12 of the Natural Resources Transfer Agreement 1930 (NRTA).
The Court found that the Métis are not included in the term “Indians” in paragraph 12 of the NRTA entered into between Saskatchewan and the Federal government. In R v Blais,  4 CNLR 219, the Supreme Court of Canada (“SCC”) held that the Métis in Manitoba were not included in the term “Indians” in the identical provision of the NRTA entered into between Manitoba and the Federal government. In Daniels v Canada,  3 CNLR 56 (“Daniels”), the SCC held that the Métis are “Indians” for purposes of s 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, but it also held that a completely different interpretive exercise is involved under the NRTA. Paragraph 12 is under the heading “Indian Reserves” with paragraphs 10 and 11, that cover Canada’s Treaty obligation to create and administer Indian reserves. While the SCC’s decision in Manitoba Metis Federation v Canada,  2 CNLR 281, refers to fiduciary duty, it held Canada did not owe a fiduciary duty in its express constitutional obligation under s 31 of the Manitoba Act, 1870 to provide lands for the benefit of the Métis children in Manitoba. Canada had no express constitutional obligation to the Métis in Saskatchewan from which a fiduciary or any related legal obligation could arise and no power to include the Métis in the NRTA, a negotiated agreement, without Saskatchewan’s agreement.
It was established that all three defendants have an ancestral connection to the historic Métis community of northwest Saskatchewan (“HMCONWS”). The areas that the defendants were charged for harvesting, however, must be determined to be part of the HMCONWS. Applying the test set out by the SCC in R v Powley,  4 CNLR 321, is to determine when Europeans established political and legal control in those areas. In R v Langan, 2013 SKQB 256, the test was confirmed as being when colonial policy shifted from one of discouraging settlements to one of negotiating treaties and encouraging settlement. While it was shown that some time was spent at Pelican Lake, it was not established that a Métis community existed there prior to European effective control or was part of HMCONWS, therefore Mr. Boyer was found guilty of the offence charged. Given the proximity of Rush Lake to Green Lake, and the evidence that hunting and fishing happened in and around identified historic Métis communities, this area was found to be geographically indistinguishable from Green Lake and a part of HMCONWS, therefore, Mr. Myette is not guilty of his charge. Alcott Creek, and Jackfish Lake/Cochin, were not part of HMCONWS, resulting in finding Mr. Poitras guilty of the offence charged.