Offering Seminar Courses Remotely

A good seminar is all about students thinking critically and deeply about ideas, and then building on the ideas of others. Face to face (F2F), that looks like a small group of students in discussion, lead by an instructor, TA, or even by another student or groups of students. In an online environment, seminars will work best if they occur asynchronously in the discussion boards in an LMS (Canvas, Blackboard).  If the group is small enough (think about a dozen students), some type of synchronous tool, like WebEX, can allow students to talk to each other at the same time. 

The 4 key elements for a seminar that need to be replicated during remote instruction include:

  1. A prompt or text(s) that the student considers independently in advance
  2. Guiding questions that require analysis, synthesize and/or evaluation of ideas
  3. The opportunity to share personal thinking with a group
  4. Ideas being developed, rejected, and refined over time based on everyone’s contributions

Giving students a prompt and guiding questions is best done in written form in remote instruction. Like F2F instruction, a rich prompt with lots to think about and some guiding questions that help students consider the prompt are essential.  In a F2F class, student often choose to respond more to certain questions than others as a class discussion progresses.  In a discussion board, you usually provide choice to accomplish the same thing, for example:  “Please select one of four discussion threads for this week.  Post a short initial response of 100 words or less.  Then read the comments of other students and select two to engage with.  Consider building on the ideas of others students, posing questions, or add resources related to the topic as a part of your response to others.”

Sharing Thinking Asynchronously (at different times) in Canvas or Blackboard
While some students are actually more comfortable is responding to online discussion boards, many do better if they have a sense of who they are speaking with and what is appropriate. Students need specific guidance and support for how to develop, reject, and refine ideas appropriately in your course. 

  1. If you want students to share well, consider requiring an initial post where you and students introduce yourselves and share a picture.
  2. Describe your expectations for norms in how everyone will behave online
  3. Provide a lot of initial feedback about the quality of posting.  Consider giving samples of good and bad posts, and remember to clarify your marking criteria. Focus your expectations on the quality of comments, and set maximums for the amount you expect to reduce your marking load and keep the discussions high quality.
  4. Someone will need to moderate the discussion. That includes posting the initial threads, reading what everyone posts all weeks and commenting to keep the discussion flowing.  Likely, the same person (you or a TA) will also be grading and providing private feedback to each student. Consider making the moderation of a discussion an assignment in your course. You can moderate the first few weeks to demonstrate what you want, and groups of students can moderate other weeks. It can increase engagement if done well, and definitely decreases your work load.

Sharing Thinking Synchronously in Web EX
If your class is small, you can still use a synchronous (the class meets at the same time) discussion. You should still start with introductions and need to explain how the sharing process will work. Teach everyone to mute when not speaking, and turn off their cameras if they have bandwidth issues. Use the chat so people can agree and add ideas as other people are speaking, and teach people to raise their hands or add emoticons in the participants window to help you know who wants to speak next.

Student Presentation Within the Seminar

If you usually have or would like to start using student presentations within your seminar, students this can be accomplished in several ways.

  1. Have students use Panopto for student presentations
  2. Have students record their presentation with their cell phones and upload them to Canvas or Blackboard.
  3. If your class is small, have student deliver their presentations asynchronously through WebEx

 

 

Teaching Performance-Based Classes Remotely

For those of us who have ever taught courses that require a lot of practicing a skill, this move to remote and online instruction is crushing.  It is one thing to record a video of something you’d tell your students and put it up online somewhere for them to access, and another thing to think about a performance based course.  When I first taught drama online, I could not see how to do it, as I did not want to lose both the “doing” and the “together” parts of when everyone is learning by themselves at different times. To be honest, I still really prefer teaching drama in a room with my students face to face (F2F), rather than asynchronously (students learning at different times) online.  But I’ve learned some things that can help physical movement classes and performing arts, so I thought I’d share them.

As I see it, there are some common elements that are a part of all the moving and arts classes we might call performance classes. Performance-based courses focus on students refining skills by observing, breaking complex components into parts, practicing (often with others), and then refining based on feedback. The process occurs many times, and student practice to improve skills, learning to do complex skills with others, and develop automaticity.  Performance-based courses have periodic culminating tasks that have an audience – think game day or a concert/show.

The 4 key elements for an performance course include:

  1. Observing or listening to understand the criteria for good
  2. Breaking complex tasks into small parts
  3. Iterative loops of practice, feedback, and collaborating with others to refine and improve performance
  4. Presentation of learned skills in a complex situation with an audience

Observing and listening:
This stage is actually done pretty well in a remote setting, and I have built videos I’ve wound up using face to face because I can zoom in, focus on what I need my students to see and hear, and slow things down.  Generally, I find text-bases explanations to be poor substitutes, so I use many short videos to demonstrate and explain in my online, performance based courses.

Breaking complex task into small parts:
Again, video is my friend, as is something instructional designers call chunking. I think of it as the components of each separate skill or decision.  Watching game tape, freezing, and rewinding is a great way to break a complex task into parts in either a face to face or online environment.  So is watching the online concerts and performances that many arts organizations are posting right now. My students have never been able to see the National Theater in London, but they can right now. I combine all that watching with asking them to think about specific parts of what they are seeing and how those parts contribute to the whole.

Practice, feedback, and collaboration:
I think this is the hardest version to do online.  Student can often practice on their own – in fact we expect them to do a lot of drill and practice of fundamentals to develop automaticity. But it is much harder to combine the fundamentals the way we need you to in a performance (especially with others) and give feedback.  I started doing a lot clarifying what good sounds like or looks like, and then having my students create video (think playing tests if you teach music) of themselves performing. There are many good apps available for specific disciplines that allow students to work together at distance, but they tend to be discipline specific, so a summary of all of them isn’t likely to be helpful here.

I have learned that I can’t give all the feedback the way I do F2F because it just takes too much time.  Because the criteria are clear, my students give feedback to each other (and are graded on the quality of their coaching and suggestions periodically) and I focus on feedback for final tasks. It gives me some of the collaboration, but doesn’t actually give full experience of ensemble or team.  I am not saying I don’t have student film joint scenes in two separate locations, because I do (and professional actors do), I just think it is not the same thing.  I have been able to let that go, because the alternative is that my student just don’t get to take the course, and I don’t want them to stop their practice.

Presentation:
I’ve been doing what many of you have likely already thought of – more video.  As restriction ease, I will move to small groups if I can for some practice and all the performances, but we still won’t have an audience, which is a real loss in theater.  I tell myself the professionals are all living with online concerts and considering playing without an audience, so my amateur class can do that, too.

On resources:
Depending on your area, faculty members and high school specialists have been developing online guides and repositories of tools and resources. Good guides are often structured like this Visual Arts higher education remote guide, and include tools, resources, and instructional advice crowd scored from other professors and experts. This physical education sample lesson plan steps you through the type of process that might make sense for structuring teaching a skill and having a student demonstrate it.

It’s Okay to Keep it Simple

As we all rapidly transition to remote instruction this week due to COVID-19, it is actually better to keep it simple.  When a friend sent me a blog post called Please do a bad job of putting your course online, I was initially offended.  As I read the post, I realized it offered some really good advice.  We aren’t trying to make awesome online courses (that takes too much effort at this stage), and faculty and students are dealing with lots of complications in their lives.  We are trying to protect ourselves and others with social distancing while ensuring students don’t lose the credits they are working for. With that in mind, here are some quick tips for rapid remote teaching:

  1. Choose to cut things that aren’t absolutely essential for students to meet learning outcome or objectives.
  2. Everyone already has a Blackboard shell for their course. Your students are already enrolled.  Use that as the home base for everything that you can.
  3. Keep the technology simple. Posting of simple text documents in Blackboard, like your notes, will be best for everyone.  
  4. If you have to use video, keep it very short.  Use small clips of 5 minutes or less if you can, and don’t worry about umms or editing for professionalism.
  5. Recycle what you already have.  Captured a lecture last year with Panopto – re-use it. 
  6. Avoid your class needing to meet at the same time (synchronous).  It will cause potential problems for students with low bandwidth and people dealing with sickness. 
  7. If you need to give a final, make the test open book if you can.  Technical solutions to proctor at distance are often ineffective or invade personal privacy.

Remember, everyone is working and learning in less than ideal conditions.  Simplify everywhere that you can. 

Other great links:

 

Feeding Learning: Mark better work, in less time

In the last two decades we’ve learned a lot about feedback.  We know Our Learning Charter tells us that as educators, we’ve agreed to “Provide prompt and constructive feedback for students on their learning progress at regular intervals throughout the course.” What does that actually mean, and why does it matter?

What do we know about prompt feedback?

  1. The most useful feedback occurs early on in the learning process (formative), not at the end (summative), because feedback is most useful when students do not yet have mastery. In both cases, feedback closer to when the task is completed is usually more useful.
  2. When students have clear criteria or examples to compare themselves to, they can give themselves early feedback.  This is important because the feedback is more timely, and it requires less work from educators.
  3. Students with high agency are more likely to understand, act on, and internalize feedback they receive. Prompt feedback increases student feeling of agency, but only when a student can still alter their work.  Feedback that occurs so late that it can only be used for another course you take in this subject is rarely used by any students.

What do we know about constructive feedback?

Constructive feedback is feedback that helps students improve.  Educators report giving feedback much more often than student report receiving it, especially if it is directed to the whole class, as most students assume it does not apply to them.  In order to improve student results, the best feedback is:

  1. Focused on the goal of the task: Rather than saying how well you did relative to others, the feedback is directly focused on the knowledge or skills student were trying to demonstrate by doing the assignment or test.
  2. Actionable: The feedback tells the student information how to make changes, not just what to change, and is timely enough it is possible to actually make the changes.
  3. Individual: The feedback tells each student what they will need to do to improve, rather than generalizing about what students in general could do.
  4. Designed to be heard: The feedback is framed in a way that is positive, but still describes how to improve over time. It uses simple language so students who have been confused are likely to be more clear about how to improve over time.
  5. Agentic: The feedback uses language that implies student agency in solving issues.  For example, asking questions designed to promote reflection about a specific issue and its impact or praising a place int he student work where something has been do correctly and noting other places that need to be done the same way.

Yeah, but who has the time…

The process of giving early feedback is time consuming, but so it marking terrible student work, or writing notes on an end of term essay that no one will ever read.  Some tips to save time:

  • Construct clear criteria and have student self-assess against it in class. Practice with a sample as a large class, then give students time to assess their own work individually. It takes a bit of class time and saves you a lot of marking time.
  • Use peers to give feedback on early drafts.  It avoids all the issues of peer marking, because it is just feedback, and is more timely than summative feedback at the end of an assignment or project.
  • Use well-written rubrics because bad ones don’t have the same benefits. Rubrics are especially important if more than one person is marking your students’ work.  Good rubrics, even single-point ones, can clarify what students did wrong and how they can improve. They also save time and create greater consistency amoung markers.

You can read more tips about efficient marking in other posts.

Learn more

Transparent assessment

Assessment practice is shifting away from comparing students to each other, or grade derived professor’s experiences and preferences.  Increasing, it is focused on comparing students to a clear learning outcome or goal for the assessment that everyone in the class knows in advance. The process of clearly articulating that goal and what we consider good evidence of it is called “Transparent Assessment.” The goal of all transparent assessment is to ensure students understand what they are trying to achieve or learn, so they can be more effective partners in that learning. Our Learning Charter has three learning charter educator commitments related our assessment:

  • Provide a clear indication of what is expected of students in a course or learning activity, and what students can do to be successful in achieving the expected learning outcomes as defined in the course outline
  • Ensure that assessments of learning are transparent, applied consistently and are congruent with learning outcomes
  • Design tools to both assess and enable student learning

5 techniques to make your assessments more transparent:

  1. Clearly articulate the specific skills and knowledge you want to see students demonstrate right before they start learning each class.  While it is important to put learning outcomes or objectives on a syllabus, student need our help connecting those outcomes to specific learning they are about to do.
  2. Double check your alignment between what you teach, your outcomes, and your assessments.  Are there some parts of your assessment task that are unrelated to your outcomes? Are you testing things you haven’t taught, like specific ways of thinking or presentation skills? Is too much of the assessment focused in one area relative to the time you spent teaching it? Does the test or assignment use the same language you used when you taught?
  3. Share or co-construct assessment criteria before student start work on assessments. Discuss them overtly and compare them to models and samples, until you are confident students know what “good” looks like, and how to achieve it.  It might cost you time in class, but it will save you a lot more time marking, and you’ll mark better work.  Think your students understand?  Ask what they are trying to demonstrate when they do the assessment.  If they tell you the parts of the task (what) instead of the purpose of the task (why, how), the assessment is still not transparent to them.
  4. Use assessment tools, like checklists and rubrics, that a student can interpret without understanding what you are thinking.  If the categories on your rubric are ratings like “good” or “well-developed” a student still has to guess what you mean.  Substitute descriptions that include specifics like: “The argument is specific and illustrated through examples. The essay explains why the argument matters.”
  5. Use students are resources to increase transparency.  Have them try small examples of the main skill you are looking to see, and then give each other feedback using the criteria.  It will ensure they read the criteria, and cause them to ask about criteria or assessment processes they don’t understand. You’ll ensure students get more early feedback without increasing your marking load.

Increased transparency is about everyone in the class working together to have students learn as much as possible and demonstrate that learning as effectively as possible. For professors, it means fewer questions challenges of grades and marking better student work.  When done well, it results in student better understanding the learning goals and being more invested in them.

Learn more

 

All aligned – Instruction

In higher education, we have our students do all the hardest learning by themselves.  As academics, our greatest strength is expertise, but we routinely select passive instructional strategies that have our students mostly listening to lectures in our classes and doing their learning later.  Choosing passive listening robs us of the opportunity to provide the nuance and clarification that learners need while they learn. This post focuses on selecting the right type of instructional approaches to have our students actively learning the most important and challenging things they will need.

Relationship to our Learning Charter:There are two learning charter educator commitments related our instructional approaches to learning tasks:

  • Be aware of the range of instructional methods and assessment strategies, and select and utilize teaching methods that are effective in helping students achieve the learning outcome of a course or learning activity
  • Ensure that content is current, accurate, relevant to learning outcomes/objectives, representative of the knowledge and skills being taught and appropriate to the position of the learning experience within a program of study

Aligning the type of learning and your outcome: The type of learning you want your students to do dictates your instructional approach.  If the task is to recall factual information, but not be able to use it is any way, lecture is actually a very effective way to communicate that information.  Student will still need to rehearse it (memorize) by studying in order to learn, and sadly, will often forget much of it six months out.  In addition, the most useful things taught by an expert are rarely basic facts. They are skills, concepts, and refined understandings, which novice students learn most effectively while actively engaging in learning facilitated by an expert. When we intersperse passive teaching with the right type of active learning given our outcomes, students are much more likely to learn the most challenging things we have to teach.

Choosing the right strategy:

  1. Determine the type of learning you want students to do (not just the content you want to cover) by writing or using a good learning outcome.
  2. Select an appropriate active approach, and intermix it with your passive approaches to increase the amount of student learning.
Type of learning Instructional approach
Knowledge: factual information like terms, classifications, and theorists · Passive: Tell student about the knowledge (lecture, video, reading)

· Active: Have student use the facts in meaningful ways to learn them (mind-mapping, listing, drill and practice, sorting/drag and drop)

Conceptual: ideas understood well enough to apply it in new situations to assess or evaluate, like the concept of a successful argument or the concept of balanced · Passive: Read a complex explanation, hear someone describe the concept

·  Active: Classify or sort parts of the concept using criteria, refine an example of the concept, find errors, render judgement, construct an example of the concept, compare personal understanding to an example or rubric, reflect on growth of conceptual understanding over time

Process (cognitive): use a series of mental steps to accomplish a task, like solving for X

Process (psycho-motor or physical): use a series of physical steps with the right degree of acuity, like a neat set of the correct stitches

·Passive: observe someone do the steps

·Active: Try to do the steps, put the steps in order, find errors in someone else doing the steps, predict what will happen if the steps are done wrong, reflect on personal success in completing the steps

Skill: Combing multiple types of learning to accomplish a goal, for example identify the critical parts of a complex problem, choose the order to do it in, and solve the problem correctly · Passive: Hear about or see someone else using the skill

· Active: Try the skill in context (experiential learning) and reflect on success, complete a simulation, generate a decision-making tree or matrix, construct an argument on the implications of the application of the skill by someone else, provide feedback to another person by comparing their use of the skill to criteria

Learn more:

Read the other blogs in this sequence about constructive alignment:

Read the other chats related to Our Learning Charter to learn about other educator commitments.

Outcomes-based Assessment

Traditional forms of assessment, often norm-referenced, are increasingly mixed with outcomes-based assessment in campuses in Canada.  Often, outcomes-based systems start in professional programs with accreditation standards, where it is important that all graduate have minimal standards of competence, and are not just rated in comparison to their peers.  As the use of outcomes-based teaching and assessment is becoming more common, people are wondering what the difference between traditional and outcomes-based assessment is.

What is outcomes-based assessment?

  • It starts with faculty members articulating what they want students to be able to do when they complete the learning. This is called an outcome and it is different than thinking about what you will teach, because it is focused on the end result for students that you built the course for (learn more about outcomes and how to write them)
  • Outcomes-based assessment is the deliberate collection of evidence of student learning based on outcomes. It yields a mark relative to the outcomes (criterion referenced) rather than other students.

What do you do differently in an outcomes-based system?

  • Planning: You need to clearly know what level of skills and knowledge you will accept as competent or successful performance by students (instead of what mark), then plan the assessments to measure it and the instruction to teach it.
  • Assessment: You make an effort to give more feedback early, and give more attempts.  You pay more attention to most recent evidence. A good way of thinking about this is a driver’s test.  You don’t average in the first time you practiced with your final road test. Even if you fail your road test once, you get the score from your second attempt, not the combined score from your first and second, because the goal is to measure how competent you’ve become, rather than average in all attempts.
  • Calculating grades: In an outcomes-based system, you group and weigh by outcome, not by assessment task.  This means that outcome 1 might be 10% and outcome 2 could be 8% of the final grade. An individual test might have 50% of its marks in outcome 1 and another 50% in outcome 2.  In a syllabus, you’d explain your weighting by outcome, not by how much the assignments and final are worth.

Why would you bother to do this?

  • Students know exactly what you are trying to have them learn, and are more able to take responsibility for learning it.  As a result, they learn more deeply, and they more accurately identify what specifically they need to work harder on.
  • Because students understand more about what you want them to know and be able to do, you mark fewer weak assignments, which saves you time and frustration
  • It allows you to clearly understand how your students are improving over time on each of the outcomes you set.  That makes it easy to modify your course to make it more effective
  • Outcomes-based assessment is helpful for seeing how your course contributes to student success in the program, or gives a clear indication of how well student learn specific pre-requisite knowledge and skills you are trying to teach them

Why might you choose not do this?

Aside from the effort involved in trying something new, even if it might improve student learning, there are two common reasons to be concerned:

  1. The outcomes might be too focused on some government or institutional agenda, limiting your choice
  2. Students might focus on the outcomes instead of the learning

In response to #1, if you set your own outcomes, it is unlikely you would pick something you thought was unworthy or too low level, but there are times where an external body (like in accreditation) may set an outcome you would not have chosen to insure a progression of learning over courses and years. With regards to #2, I think we all want students to focus on the learning, but if they don’t know the outcome, they actually typically focus on the assessments, asking questions like “will this be on the test”, which indicate the are unclear on the learning and just focused on the grade.

What goals of the university is this connected to?

Outcomes-based assessment is directly connected to 3 key commitments we have as educators on campus, according to our Learning Charter:

  • Ensure that assessments of learning are transparent, applied consistently and are congruent with learning outcomes
  • Design tools to both assess and enable student learning
  • Learn about advances in effective pedagogies/andragogies

Read the other chats related to Our Learning Charter to learn about other educator commitments.

What works with study of teaching and learning?

The Gwenna Moss Centre for Teaching and Learning (GMCTL) offers grants for groups of faculty investigating what works in teaching and learning practice.  For most of, the process of teaching causes us to question, asking ourselves things like:

  • Why did that class work so well?
  • Why did students struggle so much with a particular question on a test?
  • What can I do to help with the increase in anxiety my students are reporting?

Gary Poole tells us is important to trust ourselves that these are great questions, and to work to explore them.  We need to consult the research in case there is already a well-established answer, we need to start small, and we need to work with others.

GMCTL offers clusters of faculty grants to help them do all three. However, many faculty still aren’t sure how to proceed with research into to teaching, specifically, so the process is still daunting. Dr. Nicola Simmons from Brock recently shared a set of videos that demystify the process, and this one with Gray Poole is a great simple introduction to what processes work in studying teaching and learning (SOTL).

If you are interested in learning more about studying your teaching practice, or want support working on a SoTL project with colleagues, contact GMCTL.

All Aligned – Outcomes

This post is one of a 3 part series on the concept of alignment of what you want students to learn, how you plan to teach them, and what you will assess them on.  Sometimes called constructive alignment, it has three parts:

  • Your learning outcomes
  • Your instructional approach or learning strategies
  • Your assessments

This post focuses on the need for clear learning outcomes for your students, and the next two posts in October and November focus on instruction and assessment respectively.

Why outcomes

Outcomes are statements that describe what our teaching is designed to help students know, do, or be. They start with a verb, then connect that to the key content.  Knowing what they are helps us design instruction that is focused exactly on what we want.

For example, if your goal is to have students

  • Articulate a well-defended argument based on precedent

Then you want to teach them to

  • Use criteria for well-defended to assess and build arguments
  • Find and make sense of relevant precedent

Without a clear outcome about being able to actually make a well-defended argument, you might think your instruction should stop at describing criteria for well-defended, or that a test where students recalled the definition might be better than an assessment where they actually had to make an argument.

Good outcomes help us focus our classes on the knowledge, skills, and values we actually care about our students learning, rather than explaining facts and ideas.  The educator commitments in Our Learning Charter describe being “aware of the range of instructional methods and assessment strategies, and select and utilize teaching methods that are effective in helping students achieve the learning outcome of a course or learning activity” as a key shared commitment of those of us who teach on campus.

More about outcomes

Read the other chats related to Our Learning Charter to learn about other educator commitments.

 

Practice Your Research Skills Early and Often

by Merle Massie, Coordinator, Undergraduate Research Initiative

We tend to think of university as a place to soak up knowledge, to learn stuff, to end up with a ‘brain full of smartness,’ as one twelve-year old boy once explained.

Yet the new University of Saskatchewan Learning Charter promises, and expects, more.

While content knowledge is important, the Charter sets out skills and practices that students, faculty and staff are expected to pursue.Three of those skills and practices are specific to research. USask wants students, faculty and staff to:

  • be able to locate, understand, evaluate and use information effectively, ethically, legally and with cultural appropriateness
  • develop and apply appropriate skills of research, inquiry and knowledge creation and translation
  • Communicate clearly, substantively and persuasively in different academic, professional and cultural contexts; nihtâ-âcimowin/nihta achimoohk (being a good storyteller).

An excellent place for students to start their skill journey is FYRE:
First Year Research Experience.

In 2018-2019, there were over 2700 student enrollments in FYRE classes. A FYRE class is a regular first-year 100 level course in every way except one: it deliberately uses research as a way to teach and learn.Students take on a research project (sometimes individually, sometimes in groups). The project must follow the research cycle: build a research question; investigate the question using the tools of the discipline; and share that knowledge with peers beyond the professor.

From the educator’s perspective, FYRE responds to another key point in the Learning Charter: strive for excellence in teaching. Using FYRE, the professor provides “opportunity for students to be inspired and engaged with and in the process of authentic inquiry, wherever possible, in their learning.”

A few thoughts on building FYRE into your first year course:

  • Consider course outcomes, beyond content. What skills does your discipline require? These could be discerning good sources, building and executing a survey, working in a lab or archive, analyzing data, synthesizing research to date, and so forth.
  • Build skill development into your course, scaffolding student learning. Give them room to develop skills, try, fail, and succeed.
  • Build a course component that could be a FYRE project. Students must move through all three parts of the research cycle: Question∼Investigate∼ Share.
  • Register your course with Merle Massie, Undergraduate Research Coordinator (email merle.massie@usask.ca) and choose a paid research coach.
  • Build a project timeline, with student feedback from a research coach and deadlines.
  • Design a way for students to share their findings beyond the professor.

FYRE allows educators to bring research into the classroom, to use it as a teaching tool, and to be up-front that FYRE is about learning and practicing research skills.

Research can be messy, confusing, frustrating and hard. It can also, at the same time, pull a student in and give them a whole new way to look at what it takes to build and add new knowledge, and to share that knowledge with others. Your learning, and theirs, will catch FYRE.

Learn more:

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