Building broad minds is not about back filling. Broad minds are the byproduct of encountering diverse ideas, thinking deeply about them, and integrating those ideas into our own worldviews and cognitive frameworks. In higher education, the opportunity to be exposed to the thinking of a wide variety of disciplines usually happens at the first year level. However, those are also often large courses where the primary method of instruction is listening to your professor speak. To actually get broad minds, our learning activities have to be active, even in the large classrooms where active learning strategies are limited by the room, and even when students are first encountering the subject mater.
A great simple rule for broad minds is the 10:2 ratio. It basically means that for every 10 minutes of lecture, and student needs 2 minute of social processing to make sense of it. Lots of the time, we think group work in classes is all about assignments. Actually, it is much more about helping us make sense of what we learning. To encourage broad thinking, consider pausing at least every 10 minutes and doing a short activity that allows student to make sense of what you’ve just tried to teach them.
Use daily active collaboration in increase understanding
- Having students problem solve in pairs
- Having students turn and talk to each other about the implications of a new idea you introduced or why it matters
- Provide opportunities to try something and get feedback from a peer. You don’t have time to provide all that feedback in a large class, but feedback is helpful in both improving and remembering, and there are many other people in the room who can help. Giving feedback also refines our understanding, so your students are learning when giving and receiving feedback.
- Have students teach each other something quick (not a big group presentation). Read more from the research about why this is one of the best ways to improve student understanding (Topping and Stewart, 1998).
Have students engage in critical thinking and think from multiple worldviews
Developing broad minds requires encountering the major debates of the discipline early and considering them from multiple perspective. Although it is hard to have teams of two students debate other teams of two students in a large lecture theater, all students can think and speak simultaneously. Want to see how it would work?
- Use structured controversies: Watch U of S prof Marcel D’Eon lead a structure controversy in his class and hear what students had to say.
- Use problem-based learning to introduce students to real-life scenarios where they will need that your course teaches, and have them think actively through the key concepts and skills they will need to learn. Learn more about why and how to.
- Read about some simple ways to make learning more active
- See a handout with great learning strategies for large classrooms, and watch videos about how we learn and assess.
- Not sure what you believe about learning? Read a quick summary of major educational theory and decide what you’d like to read more about.