Co-authoring Take 2: A co-authored post about co-authoring

Co-written with Shannon Lucky, Library Systems & Information Technology
Earlier this year I excitedly read Shannon Lucky’s post on Co-authoring from April 21, 2015 on Brain-Work, sparking a chance to respond, connect and collaborate. In our discussion about co-authoring we captured a wide range of questions to ask and strategies that seemed to fit with the framework of the 5 Basic Elements of Cooperative Learning that we adapted to co-write this blog post. To see Shannon’s description of our collaboration visit where the following information is cross-posted on C-EBLIP.

– Carolyn

Co-authoring and collaborative research can be personally rewarding and can strengthen a project by tapping into multiple perspectives and disciplines. It can also be difficult and frustrating at times but conflicts can be minimized, or avoided altogether, through planning and clear communication.
The following checklist is based on the five basic elements of cooperative learning developed by Johnson, Johnson, & Johnson Holubec. Each element is defined and lists questions you should answer as a group and tips to keep in mind as your work progresses. These questions can feel uncomfortable or may lead to conflict, but it is better to have these hard conversations early and to sort out any impasses before it is too late. Sometimes collaborating with someone just doesn’t work and it can be better to identify these situations early and walk away on good terms rather than having a project fall apart mid-way through when lots of time, energy, and resources have already been invested.
Communicate early! Communicate often!

A good collaborative team needs:

1. Positive Interdependence – having mutual goals, pursue mutual rewards, and need each other to be successful.

  • What are my goals for the project and what are my co-author’s goals?
    • This can include the number of publications you will write, the venue and format of publication, and timelines.
  • What am I bringing to this project and what are other in the group bringing?
    • Talk about your work style and preferences, personality, Myers-Briggs types, StrengthsFinders, what bugs you about working in groups – anything that will help your group get to know each others preferred work styles.
  • Can the project be easily divided so that everyone has a defined task?
    • Doing the literature review, editing, analyzing, referencing, etc.
  • What will each of our roles on the project team be and will they be static or rotating?
    • Note taking, coordinating meetings, synthesizing/pulling together ideas, etc.
  • What will the author order be or how else will author contribution be recognized?
    • How is this determined and is everyone in agreement?


  • Know thyself – figure out what has bothered you about past collaborations and what has worked well. Communicate this clearly to your team members and ask them what works and does not work for them. Be honest and upfront about your expectations.

2. Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction – reading each other’s expressions or tone and have positive interactions

  • How can we meet face-to-face, in the same room or using technology?
    • Especially important when working at a distance. We must interact with each other in ways that avoid misunderstandings or assumptions and build consensus/respected distinction?
  • How frequently should we meet and how will these meetings be arranged?
    • Are all meetings planned at the start of the project? Who is required at the meetings and who will organize and lead them? When will they occur?
  • What will our meetings look like?
    • Will they be for planning and checking in on individual progress, working meetings, or discussion and co-creation focused?
  • What is the length of our project?
    • Confirm what collaborator and able and willing to commit to in advance. Situations can change, but having a rough expectation for required time and contribution to the group can help with contingency planning if need be.
  • How will we create a good rapport and welcoming environment for the group?
    • Whose job is it to set the tone? The meeting host and the content lead for the discussion don’t have to be the same person.


  • Pay attention to discussions happening over email and other non face-to-face interactions to ensure that positivity, respect, and encouragement is maintained.
  • Make sure everyone in the group is included in discussions so no one becomes isolated or siloed in their piece of the project. This recommendation does not preclude small task groups or subgroups, but communication should be forefront.

3. Individual Accountability – each person knowing what they need to do, is able to do it, and does it on time.

  • What are the deliverables?
  • What are realistic timelines for me? For my co-author(s)?
  • What are our external deadlines?
    • e.g., special issue deadlines, external reviewer, conferences, personal deadlines
  • What will we do if we fall behind or need to step back?
    • Anticipate setbacks and plan contingencies.


  • Make individuals accountable to the group and their collective goals, rather than to a single individual leader. Allow the weight of several people relying on and expecting each piece to prompt action. Also reduces the tracking and chasing of the leader.
  • Make sure there is an explicit link between author order and contribution to the project or ensure another type of recognition for all authors.

4. Interpersonal And Small Group Skills – having the conflict-management, leadership, trust-building, and communication skills to build a well-functioning group

  • What skills do we already have in our group for leadership, conflict-management, facilitation etc.? What gaps exist and how can we fill them?
    • This can mean adding a person or finding external support such as hiring a copyeditor.
  • What roles do we all want to play on this project?
    • Take care to consider each person’s workload and other projects they are involved with. You might not want to be the lead researcher or editor for multiple projects are the same time.
  • What is my bandwidth for contributing to this project?
    • Note if this is likely to change during the lifecycle of the project and how this will impact the group.


  • See what skill development opportunities are available in your area.
  • Co-authoring might be an opportunity to either observe or practice a new skill

5. Group Processing – continuing to be a well-functioning group, checking in regularly and using the skills from element #4.

  • What points of coherence and dissonance have we identified as a group?
    • How do our personalities in element #1 work together or against each other?
    • How will we deal with disagreements?
    • What is the plan when individuals do not fulfill their part of the project?


  • Revisit your roles and decisions periodically as a group.
  • Build time to reflect and discuss the project into your meetings or schedule time specifically for this activity.
  • Identify one next step or a change to improve your project and/or your work dynamic.
  • Celebrate your successes!

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson, and Edythe Johnson Holubec.Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina: Interaction Book, 1991. Print.

Too explicit? No such thing.

Following on Heather’s post last week about the key (and required) elements of the syllabus at the University of Sasaktchewan, I wanted to add a point of emphasis that I think saves time, saves confusion, and may even save you some heartache.

That point is: be explicit with your students about your expectations.

Sometimes, as instructors, we may forget that we too  had to learn about academic expectations and norms.   If we were lucky, we caught on quickly, probably in our first or second years of undergraduate study.   Our new students (new to our disciplines, our institution, our jargon, our everyday language, our Saskatchewan and/or Canadian ways) will benefit from clear instructions and rules about how to complete the work required, and especially the work we will assess for grades.  When we want individual work, we should explain what that looks like and what it does not in the context of our course.  Examples help a lot.  When collaboration is permitted, we should explain what we mean by that and what we would regard as collusion in the context of our course.  Again, examples are very useful.  When we expect students to use outside resources, we should explain what we mean by originality and what we mean by proper referencing, by proper paraphrasing.  Referring students to library and other resources so that they may quickly  learn about these important practices is vital.

It’s also important to note that what we expect may differ from what students have experienced in other programs, in other courses, and with other professors, even those in our same hallways.  The expectations we have can, to some extent, reflect our own beliefs about students and the role of assignments in their learning.

While this GMCTE video sets this same message about being explicit within the concern for academic integrity, you may find a view of this short piece gives you the reminder you need about stating, what may be to you but not to your students, the obvious.

Syllabus Requirements Updated in Academic Courses Policy

There were a number of changes to the Academic Courses policy at the University of Saskatchewan this year, including several related to the syllabus. As such, I want to take this opportunity to remind our readers at the U of S about what must be in your syllabus regardless of your college or department, which may have additional requirements.

All of the information shown below is included in the syllabus template and guide that can be found on our web site. You are not required to use the template, but it can be handy to use as a checklist for your own syllabus. It also contains additional information that we recommend you include in your syllabus.

The Academic Courses policy requires the following elements to appear in your syllabus:

  • type and schedule of class activities;
  • if the class is offered online, through distance learning, or off-campus, any additional or different expectations around any class activities and requirements;
  • expected learning outcomes or objectives for the class;
  • the type and schedule of term assignments;
  • the type and schedule of mid-term or like examinations;
  • notice if any mid-term examinations or other required class activities are scheduled outside of usual class times, with College permission;
  • the length of the final examination in hours as well as its mode of delivery;
  • relative marking weight of all assignments and examinations;
  • consequences related to missed or late assignments or examinations;
  • whether any or all of the work assigned in a class including any assignment and examination, or final examination, is mandatory for passing the class, or whether there are any other College-level regulations that specify requirements for passing the class
  • attendance expectations if applicable, the means by which attendance will be monitored, the consequences of not meeting attendance expectations, and their contribution to the  assessment process;
  • participation expectations if applicable, the means by which participation will be monitored and evaluated, the consequences of not meeting participation expectations, and their contribution to the assessment process;
  • experiential learning expectations if applicable, the means by which experiential learning will be monitored and evaluated, the consequences of not meeting experiential learning expectations, and their contribution to the assessment process;
  • contact information and consultation availability;
  • course or class website URL, if used;
  • notice of whether the instructor intends to record lectures and whether students are permitted to record lectures
  • explanation of Copyright where it relates to class materials prepared and distributed by the instructor
  • location of the Academic Courses policy as well as the regulations and guidelines for both academic and non-academic misconduct and appeal procedure;
  • information regarding support services that are available to students through the Student and Enrolment Services Division, Student Learning Services at the University Library, and the Colleges.

In addition, there are two subsequent points of importance:

After distribution the following changes are NOT permitted:

  • Methods & modes of assessment for all assignments and exams must remain as stated in syllabus
  • No major graded assignment or examination is to be newly assigned in a class
  • No changes to already set dates or the stated grade weighting of graded assignments or examinations

Changes are allowed after distribution if no student objects and the department head or dean (in non-departmentalized colleges) is notified.

Plus, “Once the Registrar has scheduled final examinations for a term, instructors wanting to change the date and/or time of their final examination must obtain the consent of all students in the class according to procedures established by the Registrar, as well as authorization from the Department Head, or Dean in non-departmentalized Colleges.”

Teaching Goals, the Learning Charter, and the Fall Fortnight

It’s hard to believe, as we sit on a 30+ day, that the fall term is coming up fast! It is even warm in my office today as I write. (And for those of you who have stopped by on other days and needed to put on a jacket, you know how hot it must be out there to warm it up in here!!) At the Centre we have been busy planning for the start of the fall turn and, as always, our guiding star is the University of Saskatchewan’s Learning Charter.

It reminds us of our responsibilities and commitments to the university community. There are specific commitments and responsibilities for instructors. We use these to guide the support we offer to instructors.

One of the ways we cluster opportunities are the seasonal fortnights—two weeks of an eclectic mix of sessions offered in a variety of formats. The next Fortnight runs from August 17th through to the 28t. Information for instructors is here: and for graduate students and post-docs is here:

We look forward to getting together again soon! For more information on any of these sessions, or to suggest sessions, please contact GMCTE.

Just a reminder—the commitments and responsibilities for instructors are:

  1. Exemplify Learning: Create a learning context which values and facilitates active learning and broad thinking; Act according to ethical principles; Create a learning environment where all participants engage respectfully.
  1. Teach Effectively: Be aware of the range of appropriate instructional strategies for teaching the course content; Select & utilize effective methods of instruction. Provide graduate teaching assistants with the proper guidance and supervision.
  1. Assess Fairly: Clearly communicate & uphold academic expectations and standards; Ensure that assessment of student learning is transparent, consistent and congruent with course outcomes; Regularly provide prompt & constructive feedback to students.
  1. Solicit Feedback: Provide opportunities for students to give candid feedback on their learning experience without fear of repercussions; Solicit feedback on teaching effectiveness from other areas; Reflect on feedback and continually strive to improve.

Practice Problem Sets: Issues of Timing and Mixing

While looking for resources for a faculty member in the sciences who was interested in incorporating more problem sets into her lectures to increase student engagement, I came upon a 2007 article by Rohere and Taylor, appearing in Instructional Science. This article describes two experiments where particular timing and mixing of mathematics practice problems improved learning.

The authors point out that it is usual for practice problems to be assigned:
• immediately following the relevant lesson (massed), and
• for problems of the same type to be grouped together (blocked).

15 - September - 2008 -- MathsThrough Rohere and Taylor’s experiments, they found that spacing the timing of two sets of practice problems 1 week apart (they called this spaced rather than massed) and varying the types of problems in a practice set (they called this mixed rather than blocked) greatly improved students’ test performance.

While the experiments used math concepts (one was a permutation task, the other was a volume task), it seems there could be an extrapolation/application to other kinds of practice problem sets for students.

The basic idea I take from this article for teaching is twofold:
(1) have students return to the problem type practiced in the previous week, and
(2) mix last week’s problem type with this week’s problem type.

This approach means students get to try a set of problems again—important especially if they had difficulty first time around. Plus, using mixtures of problems handled at the same time requires students to learn to pair each kind of problem with the appropriate procedure – that is students not only learn how to perform each procedure (learning-how), but also which procedure is for each kind of problem (learning-which) – the authors call this “discrimination training.”

A powerful closing remark in the article is that shuffling problems in this way presented few logistical demands for the teacher, making it an easy change in teaching practice that can have dramatic benefits for student learning.

(And, here I’ll add another easy change that builds on the above…teachers can ask students to do problems sets in small groups, then exchange them with another group and provide peer feedback on their calculations or choice of procedures. The learning that occurs by providing feedback to peers has also shown improvements in student performance.)

Rohere, D, & Taylor, K. (2007). The shuffling of mathematics problems improves learning. Instructional Science, 35, 381-498.

Evaluating Presentations With a Little Help From My (Citable) Friends …

Individual and group presentations provide great opportunity for students to share what they have learned with peers and an efficient and feasible way of marking for instructors.

That being said, how do you grade them?

I, and I’m pretty sure you too, have experienced the full range of presentations from the stunningly excellent to the staggeringly confusing, from the inspirational to the sleep-inducing. The challenge is describing these qualities so they can be identified and assessed.

One option would be to create my own rubric based on these experiences.

The easier option is to use or adapt existing materials from others I respect.

The first source I turn to is the well-respected Association of American Colleges & Universities’ VALUE (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education) assessment initiative, which has created 16 rubrics including one for oral communication.

They define oral communication as “a prepared, purposeful presentation designed to increase knowledge, to foster understanding, or to promote change in the listeners’ attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors” and assess it according to five criteria: organization, language, delivery, supporting material and central message. The rubric describes requirements for each criterion across 4 levels. For example, Capstone (4) level delivery requires that presenters’ “Delivery techniques (posture, gesture, eye contact, and vocal expressiveness) make the presentation compelling, and speaker appears polished and confident.”

The second resource I consider is the more detailed (15 criteria across 3 categories) rubric of the American Evaluation Association’s Potent Presentation Initiative (p2i). Their website has every resource I ever wished to send to students (and perhaps others) about what “good” presentation or posters look like. They have posted rubrics, guidelines, templates and resources for regular slides presentations, ignite presentations (20 slides x 15 seconds = 5 minutes of auto-advancing slides), posters and handouts.

In addition I could ask a colleague or see what other courses in the program are using.

presentation outline

One of the best parts of adapting rubrics is the opportunity to decide which pieces I find most important for my course (e.g., organization), ones that are relevant if revised to be more specific (e.g., supporting material) and ones that are not (e.g., mastery – speaking without reading from notes). I also can decide which resources I recommend (e.g., p2i slide design guidelines), which I comment on (e.g., I suggest noting times if you use the p2i rundown template) and which I just mention (e.g., p2i presentation preparation checklist).

When uncertain I can always ask for a second opinion from a colleague, request a consultation, or trial it before posting the criteria.

Happy assessing!

Picture courtesy of Sean MacEntee and carries a Creative Commons Attribution license.

Undergraduate Research: Co-Publishing With Students

By Jason Perepelkin, Assistant Professor, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition

Passive listening and dumping information on exams doesn’t give students the depth of learning and experience that lasts beyond the scope of a course. Having students engage with practitioners and specialists and in a real world environment helps students learn more deeply; chasing grades doesn’t do this but chasing experience does.

The elective fourth year course Marketing for Pharmacists is designed for up to 20 students. The course is a project based course where students, working in groups of two to three, work directly with a practicing pharmacist. By working directly with practitioners, on an issue identified by the practitioner, the students learn, in a hands-on manner, about a specific practice site, while the practitioner learns about marketing and how it can be used to enhance practice.

In the first year the course was offered there were 20 students, which is the maximum. This year, 6 students were enrolled, and as a result it could be run much more as a seminar. Half way through the course I thought (out loud), based on the enriching discussions around current events in pharmacy, if I was thinking we would’ve written a manuscript on these issues. The students came back a week later and said “can we do this?” I said only if all of you are willing to be involved. They said yes, so I approached a journal to see if they would be interested in an article surrounding our class discussions; the journal responded indicating their interest.

After working on the article as a group, and in consultation with myself, we submitted the manuscript for peer-review to the Canadian Pharmacists Journal at the beginning of December. In early January we received notification that our manuscript was accepted for publication, but required some minor revisions first. Since the students were not in the course anymore, and were out on experiential learning rotations across the country, I wasn’t sure if I was the one that would be completing the revisions; however, the students jumped at the chance to revise the manuscript, and even spoke of how they learnt, from the reviewers, how the manuscript can be enhanced. This allowed the students to experience the entire process, from the idea, to the research and drafting of the manuscript, to receiving feedback from peer-reviewers, and ultimately to acceptance. The manuscript was accepted the day after the revised manuscript was resubmitted, and will be published in the May/June 2015 issue.

I am not sure if this would work as well as it did, especially since it arose – after the course was half completed – from an organic process of critical thinking and discussion in class, with a different group because the maturity of the group and their willingness to cooperate was very high. As a sign of maturity, at the beginning of the course when students are to form groups of their choice, all agreed they were willing to work with anyone in the course (despite not being in the same ‘clicks’), and therefore I put all of their names in a hat and randomly selected members of each group.

Some students want to do this sort of a project and these students are the ones working on projects before they even start the course. If enrollment increased, it would be harder to ensure all papers got published and this could lead to disappointment for the students. A smaller class allows full participation in the publishing process, and in the course as a whole.

Context is incredibly important in making this work. For some students in this college marks are not as important as experience and peer-accountability is in motivating them to first enroll in the course, and second engage in the course and project. This sort of course gives students a different experience from traditional pharmacy courses, and brings recognition to other concerns such as how marketing can be used to better meet the needs of patients and the health care system as a whole. This is the first course of its kind in Canada, and provides those students that take the course the ability to learn a unique skill set that is not readily available once they enter practice; there are only a minimal number of continuing education opportunities in the area of marketing.

Developing ePublications

By Adrienne Thomas and Wayne Giesbrecht (Media Production)

With discussion surrounding open resources, this is a good time to talk about actually developing epublications and ebooks. For the past 3 years, Media Production (formerly eMAP) has been working with faculty and content creators to realize epub resources. With each new project, we have learned more about what to do and how to do it – an ongoing lesson as the software, media files and platforms continue to evolve.

Interprofessional Skills Learning GuideWithin the university environment, we are all concerned with the development of unique and immersive material to be used for information, education, research or knowledge mobilization purposes. If you want to make your content available as an epublication, you need to first determine who your end users are, and secondly, how they will access the material. Once you have made these decisions, it is a matter of formatting your content and designing a publication which will meet your informational or educational objectives to greatest effect. This can be a relatively easy process such as a PDF document converted to an epub format for web browser access to a more involved publication with media-rich/interactive content to be distributed across multiple supported platforms.

When thinking about access for your readers, you will also need to determine if this material will be open or free, or if it will be monetized and distributed commercially. If you self-publish, there is an opportunity for not only creative control, but price control. This was a major consideration for Dr. Bruce Grahn when he decided to e-publish his last textbook Ocular Diseases of Companion Animals for international distribution. Working with Dr. Grahn and the associated contributors, we formatted a full reflow etextbook, navigated account setups, acquired an ISBN and the required approvals (with associated proprietary file formats!) from commercial distributors. The textbook is now available for purchase on ITunes and Google Play.

The creation of the text was cost effective and any future revisions will automatically be updated in all distributed editions at no extra cost to the end user.

A media-rich experience and end user access were the requirements when we started working on an interprofessional education guide for the College of Medicine. There was a need for flexible access which would allow for independent learning or small discussion groups via mobile devices. Working with Heather Ward and Dylan Chipperfield, this project allowed us to develop an ebook which used video to moderate the content and present simulations. Embedding video within the epub presented interesting challenges, particularly for multi-platform access. When adding media-rich content (video, audio, animations, quizzes etc.), file size, reflow and platform incompatibility can be problematic and requires more consideration in layout and formatting. The project, Interprofessional Skills Learning Guide, was completed and is now accessed by health care professionals through the College of Medicine website, on ITunes and Google Play.

`Traditional publishers are invested in ebooks, it is an emerging technology likely to hold. It is also a gateway to open source educational materials and immersive experiences for students.

For more information about creating an eBook, please contact Adrienne at (306) 966-4280 or Wayne at (306) 966-4287.

What is Digital Citizenship?

Many teaching and learning conversations include notions of developing and fostering citizenship for our teachers and our learners in our respective disciplines and fields and in society.   Citizenship can be such broad territory. One way to focus it further is to discuss Digital Citizenship. If you’re still stumped, let me point you to a useful set of Nine Elements of Digital Citizenship appearing on a web site dedicated to this topic. Here, among other things, you’ll find types of norms that characterize appropriate and response technology use.

The distinctions between digital literacy, digital communication, digital etiquette, and digital rights and responsibilities strike me as most informative. When we exchange information electronically with others, we are engaging in digital communication.   When we are in the process of learning about technology and how to use technology to learn, we are becoming digitally literate. When we adhere to standards of conduct or procedures in our use of technology, we are upholding digital etiquette. When we accept our rights to privacy and free speech as well as our responsibility to use technology appropriately, we are recognizing digital rights and responsibilities.

Given recent concerns over offensive behavior on Facebook by a group of Canadian university students, additional digital citizenship notions of protecting confidential communication from being breached (digital security or self-protection) and taking responsibility of actions and deeds (digital law) also bring insight.

If you’re like me, looking for some clarifying definitions to assist your role and the roles of others in digital citizenship, you’ll find this useful too. Check out the rest of the website and learn more about Mike Ribble.

What It Means to Be an Ally

As we have recently come out of a week of sessions at the University aimed at making our campus a safer place for gender and sexual diversity and we enter Aboriginal Achievement week I am reflecting on what it means to me to be an ally.

Use of the term ‘ally’ in relation to marginalized groups is relatively new to me, however, what the term represents is not new.
Being an ally means working in solidarity with a marginalized group that I am not a part of to address systemic inequalities.

I’ve tried to boil down what I feel I have to work at everyday in being an ally (some days more successfully than others!) and have come up with 5 key things I’d like to share:

1)   I have to understand my position of privilege
This privilege is something that I have not earned, but received simply because of my characteristics – the way I was born.

When describing this to my six year old daughter, I liken this to recognizing that some of us are playing this game on level 1, while others are on level 5.
There are fewer barriers for me, fewer obstacles in my way and its far easier for me to get to the finish line. This doesn’t mean I haven’t worked hard or that I’ve sailed through life or not met challenges.  It just means there are things I don’t have to worry about ever facing because of who I am.

I don’t have to worry about what bathroom I may use in the mall or at work because they have been designated female and male with me in mind.
I don’t have to worry about a job application I put in being set aside simply because of the way my name sounds. I also don’t have to worry about being watched while browsing in a store simply because I am less likely to be viewed as suspicious because of the colour of my skin.

I’ve never had to get through the game at level 5, but it is my job as an ally to find out what its like as best I can, acknowledge and accept that some things are easier for me, and take what action I can to contribute to levelling the playing field.

2)   I need to listen and learn.
I need to work to listen to concerns raised by marginalized groups.  I need to consider them thoughtfully and recognize that at times my position of privilege can mean experiences sound unbelievable – they are so removed from my reality. Listening receptively can mean a marginalized group and the barrier they face can become more visible.

3)   I need to consider my position in making change.
As someone in the dominant group I should not be at the centre of the solution, I should only be a part of it.  This means dropping my agenda and my way of change. The marginalized community should be at the centre and I should be there to do what I can to contribute to making it happen.

4)   I need to accept that I will mess up and be uncomfortable and that I just have to deal with that.
Being a farm girl, I liken this to crossing a cow filled pasture.  If I focus ahead with my eyes on the horizon, I am going to step in it on occasion.  When it happens I need to apologise, learn from it, bend down, clean off my boots and keep going.

5)   Last but actually most importantly I need to be aware that being an ally is a daily activity I wake up and commit to doing – not a title or certificate I earn.
It is a verb not a noun.

So as I move forward in my work as an ally for the LGBT community, the Aboriginal community, or other marginalized groups I will work:

  1. to recognize my privilege;
  2. to listen;
  3. to find my appropriate place in driving change;
  4. accept I will mess up and I should learn from it; and
  5. keep trying

If you notice me step in something, I welcome you bring it to my attention so I can apologize, clean off my boots and continue to learn.

In writing this I read several sources. I’d recommend this blog post if you would like to read more or if you’re short on time, this 3 minute video is engaging and concise.  It might be a good one to share with students.